IRAN BEFORE THE REVOLUTION!

from-1941-to-1979-iran-was-ruled-by-king-mohammad-reza-pahlavi-the-shah

From 1941 to 1979, Iran was ruled by King Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the Shah.

due-to-irans-large-supply-of-oil-proximity-to-india-and-shared-border-with-the-soviet-union-britain-and-the-us-fully-backed-the-iranian-government

Due to Iran’s large supply of oil, proximity to India, and shared border with the Soviet Union, Britain and the US fully backed the Iranian government.

however-even-before-the-islamic-revolution-the-shahs-grip-on-power-was-unsteady

Due to Iran’s large supply of oil, proximity to India, and shared border with the Soviet Union, Britain and the US fully backed the Iranian government.

Communists and religious members of society disliked the Shah and his pro-Western government. In 1953, the Shah had to flee Iran after a Western-backed coup to overthrow Iranian Prime Minister Mohammad Mosaddegh failed. A second coup succeeded in overthrowing Mosaddegh, who wanted to nationalize the Iranian oil industry to Britain’s chagrin, and the Shah returned to the country. Reza Shah undertook a series of reforms aimed at turning Iran into a modern westernized nation.

Part of Iran’s method of achieving this was through the banning of veils in public.

these-reforms-included-the-structuring-of-iran-around-a-central-persian-identity-the-often-brutal-suppression-of-tribes-and-their-laws-in-exchange-for-strong-a-central-government-and-the-expansion-of-womans-rights

Women and men mixed freely, and educational opportunities were greatly extended. Western clothing and norms also became ingrained into large segments of the Iranian population.

Leading the charge for westernization was the Iranian royal family. Pictured below is Empress Soraya.

leading-the-charge-for-westernization-was-the-iranian-royal-family-pictured-below-is-empress-soraya

FULL ARTICLE AND 26 PICTURES GO TO: http://www.businessinsider.com/iran-before-the-revolution-in-photos-2015

LOOKING AT BOTH SIDES OF THE FENCE I DECIDED TO GO ON WIKIPEDIA 🙂 

“The Iranian Revolution (also known as the Islamic Revolution or the 1979 Revolution; Persian: انقلاب اسلامی, Enghelābe Eslāmi or انقلاب بیست و دو بهمن) refers to events involving the overthrow of the Pahlavi dynasty under Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi, who was supported by the United States [10] and its eventual replacement with an Islamic republic under the Grand Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, the leader of the revolution, supported by various leftist and Islamic organizations and Iranian student movements.

Demonstrations against the Shah commenced in October 1977, developing into a campaign of civil resistance that was of a religious nature (but with secular elements) and which intensified in January 1978.[15] Between August and December 1978 strikes and demonstrations paralyzed the country. The Shah left Iran for exile on January 16, 1979, as the last Persian monarch, leaving his duties to a regency council and an opposition-based prime minister. Ayatollah Khomeini was invited back to Iran by the government, and returned to Tehran to a greeting by several million Iranians.[18] The royal reign collapsed shortly after on February 11 when guerrillas and rebel troops overwhelmed troops loyal to the Shah in armed street fighting, bringing Khomeini to official power. Iran voted by national referendum to become an Islamic Republic on April 1, 1979, and to approve a new theocratic-republican constitution whereby Khomeini became Supreme Leader of the country, in December 1979.

The revolution was unusual for the surprise it created throughout the world:[24] it lacked many of the customary causes of revolution (defeat at war, a financial crisis, peasant rebellion, or disgruntled military),occurred in a nation that was enjoying relatively good material wealth and prosperity,produced profound change at great speed,was massively popular, resulted in the exile of many Iranians, and replaced a pro-Western semi-absolute monarchy with an anti-Western authoritarian theocracy based on the concept of Guardianship of the Islamic Jurists (or velayat-e faqih). It was a relatively non-violent revolution, and helped to redefine the meaning and practice of modern revolutions (although there was violence in its aftermath).

Its outcome – an Islamic Republic “under the guidance of a religious scholar from Qom” – was, as one scholar put it, “clearly an occurrence that had to be explained

Causes:

Reasons advanced for the occurrence of the revolution and its populist, nationalist and, later, Shi’a Islamic character include a conservative backlash against the Westernizing and secularizing efforts of the Western-backed Shah,[32] a liberal backlash to social injustice,[33] a rise in expectations created by the 1973 oil revenue windfall and an overly ambitious economic program, anger over a short, sharp economic contraction in 1977–78,[34] and other shortcomings of the previous regime.

The Shah’s regime became increasingly oppressive, brutal, corrupt, and extravagant. It also suffered from basic functional failures that brought economic bottlenecks, shortages, and inflation. The Shah was perceived by many as beholden to — if not a puppet of — a non-Muslim Western power (the United States) whose culture was affecting that of Iran. At the same time, support for the Shah may have waned among Western politicians and media – especially under the administration of U.S. President Jimmy Carter – as a result of the Shah’s support for OPEC petroleum price increases earlier in the decade.[41] When President Carter enacted a human-rights policy which said countries guilty of human-rights violations would be deprived of American arms or aid, this helped give some Iranians the courage to post open letters and petitions in the hope that the repression by the government might subside.

That the revolution replaced the monarchy of Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi with Islamism and Khomeini, rather than with another leader and ideology, is credited in part to the spread of the Shia version of the Islamic revival that opposed Westernization and saw Ayatollah Khomeini as following in the footsteps of the Shi’a Imam Husayn ibn Ali and the Shah in the role of Husayn’s foe, the hated tyrant Yazid I. Other factors include the underestimation of Khomeini’s Islamist movement by both the Shah’s reign – who considered them a minor threat compared to the Marxists and Islamic socialists– and by the secularist, opponents of the government – who thought the Khomeinists could be sidelined.”-https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iranian_Revolution

Advertisements

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s